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【中英双语】为什么丹麦能年复一年地称霸全球幸福感排名?

更新:2020-11-26 14:45:07  |  来源:转载  |  阅读:0
标签:幸福丹麦全球

This year’s World Happiness Report againranks Denmark among the top three happiest of 155 countries surveyed – adistinction that the country has earned for seven consecutive years.

今年的“世界幸福感报告”再次将丹麦列入155个受调查国家中最幸福的三个国家之一,该国赢得此殊荣已经连续七年。

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The U.S., on the other hand, ranked 18ththis year, a four-spot drop from last year’s report.

另一方面,美国今年排名第十八,相比去年的报告下降了四位。

Denmark’s place among the world’s happiestcountries is consistent with many other national surveys of happiness (or, aspsychologists call it, “subjective well-being”).

丹麦位列世界上最幸福的国家,与许多来自别国的幸福感调查结果相一致(或者用心理学家的话说,“主观幸福感”)。

Scientists like to study and argue abouthow to measure things. But when it comes to happiness, a general consensusseems to have emerged.

科学家喜欢研究和争论如何衡量事物。但是当谈到幸福时,似乎已经浮现出了普遍的共识。

Depending on the scope and purpose of theresearch, happiness is often measured using obxtive indicators (data oncrime, income, civic engagement and health) and subjective methods, such asasking people how frequently they experience positive and negative emotions.

取决于研究的范围和目的,幸福通常通过客观指标(犯罪、收入、公民参与和健康方面的数据)和主观方法来衡量,比如询问人们体验积极和消极情绪的频率。

Why might Danes uate their lives morepositively? As a psychologist and native of Denmark, I’ve looked into thisquestion.

为什么丹麦人会更加正面地评估他们的生活?作为一个心理学家和一个土生土长的丹麦人,我调研过这个问题。

Yes, Danes have a stable government, lowlevels of public corruption, and access to high-quality education and healthcare. The country does have the the highest taxes in the world, but the vastmajority of Danes happily pay: They believe higher taxes can create a bettersociety.

是的,丹麦人有稳定的政府,公共腐败程度低,并能获得高质量的教育和卫生保健。该国确实是世界上课税最重的,但绝大多数丹麦人在交税时是情愿的:他们相信更高的税收能够创造一个更好的社会。

Perhaps most importantly, however, theyvalue a cultural construct called “hygge” (pronounced hʊɡə).

也许最重要的是,他们重视一种称为“hygge”的文化概念(发音为hʊɡə)。

(译注:下文刻画中涉及hygge的一概用原词,不再翻译)

The Oxford dictionary added the word inJune 2017, and it refers to high-quality social interactions. Hygge can be usedas a noun, adjective or verb (to hygge oneself), and events and places can alsobe hyggelige (hygge-like).

牛津辞典于2017年6月收录了该词,它指的是高质量的社交互动。Hygge可以用作名词,形容词或动词(让自己hygge起来),事件和地方也可以是很hygge的。

Hygge is sometimes translated as “cozy,”but a better definition of hygge is “intentional intimacy,” which can happenwhen you have safe, balanced and harmonious shared experiences. A cup of coffeewith a friend in front of a fireplace might qualify, as could a summer picnicin the park.

Hygge有时被翻译为“惬意”,但对hygge更好的定义是“有意识的亲密”,这种情况发生在当你拥有安全、平稳、和谐的共同体验时。和朋友一起在壁炉前喝杯咖啡也许够格,在公园里来一次夏日野餐也可以算。

A family might have a hygge evening thatentails board games and treats, or friends might get together for a casualdinner with dimmed lighting, good food and easygoing fun. Spaces can also bedescribed as hyggelige (“Your new house is so hyggeligt”) and a common way oftelling a host thank you after a dinner is to say that it was hyggeligt(meaning, we had a good time). Most Danish social events are expected to behyggelige, so it would be a harsh critique to say that a party or dinner wasn’thyggelige.

一个家庭可能会有一个hygge的夜晚,必得有棋盘游戏和点心,或者朋友们可能会相聚在一起吃个便饭,享受灯光微暗,美味食物和悠闲的乐趣。空间也可以被描述为hygge的(“你的新房子好hygge呀”),而且在就餐过后向主人致谢的常用方式便是说这很hygge(意为,我们度过了美好时光)。大部分的丹麦社交活动都会自带hygge的期许,所以如果说那个派对或晚餐不是很hygge,那就是一个很严厉的批评了。

Research on hygge has found that inDenmark, it’s integral to people’s sense of well-being. It acts as a bufferagainst stress, while also creating a space to build camaraderie. In a highlyindividualized country like Denmark, hygge can promote egalitarianism andstrengthen trust.

对hygge的研究发现,在丹麦,人们的幸福感是不可或缺的。它充当着缓冲压力的功能,同时也创造了一个培养情谊的空间。在一个像丹麦这样高度个性化的国家里,hygge可以促进平均主义和强化信任。

It would be fair to say that hygge is fullyintegrated into the Danish cultural psyche and culture. But it has also becomea bit of a global phenomenon – Amazon now sells more than 900 books on hygge,and Instagram has over 3 million posts with the hashtag #hygge. Google trends datashow a big jump in searches for hygge beginning in October 2016.

公平地说hygge完全融入了丹麦人的文化和文化心理。但它也已经变成了一种相当规模的全球现象:亚马逊正在销售的有关hygge的书超过900本,Instagram网站有超过300万个帖子,用上了hygge的标签。来自谷歌的趋势数据表明,对“hygge”的搜索量从2016年10月开始大幅增加。

Nor is Denmark the only country that has aword for a concept similar to hygge – the Norwegians have koselig, the Swedesmysig, the Dutch gezenlligheid and the Germans gemütlichkeit.

丹麦也不是唯一一个为类似hygge的概念赋予词汇的国家,挪威人有koselig,瑞典人有mysig,荷兰人有gezenlligheid,德国人有gemütlichkeit。

In the U.S. – which also places a highvalue on individualism – there’s no real cultural equivalent of hygge. Incomeis generally associated with happiness; yet even though the country’s GDP hasbeen rising and its unemployment rates have been declining, levels of happinessin the U.S. have been steadily decreasing.

在同样高度崇尚个人主义的美国,不存在和hygge等同的真正的文化。通常收入与幸福联系在一起,然而尽管该国的国内生产总值一直在上升,失业率一直在下降,美国的幸福水平一直在稳步下降。

What’s going on?

这是怎么回事呢?

Income inequality continues to be an issue.But there’s also been a marked decrease in interpersonal trust and trust towardinstitutions like the government as well as the media. In the end, moredisposable income doesn’t hold a candle to having someone to rely on in a timeof need (something that 95 percent of Danes believe they have).

收入不平等仍是个问题。人与人之间的信任和对政府和媒体等机构的信任也有显著下降。最终,更多的可支配收入也无法媲美一点:有需要的时候有个人依靠(而95%的丹麦人认为他们拥有)。

At its core, hygge is about buildingintimacy and trust with others.

从核心上看,hygge是去建立与他人之间的亲密和信任。

Americans could probably use a little moreof it in their lives.

美国人在他们的生活中也许可以多实践实践这条。




【国外网民评论翻译】:

1、America’sindividualism, distrust and self-seeking are all ideas that come from specificpeople, with specific philosophies, that caught on. The question is, how do we turn aphilosophical tide, when those who’s ideas are our current dominant ideologystill hold the power, the language and the platforms?

美国的个人主义、不信任和自私自利的思想,都是来自于抱持特定人生哲学的特定人群,这样就能理解了。问题在于,那些人的思想作为如今主导我们的意识形态仍掌控着权力、话语权和平台,在这种情况下我们要如何去转变哲学潮流。



2、That is a goodquestion. I think the lesson from Denmark is that we build trust and communityvia individual contact with other people. So we get away from our devices andinto gatherings with other people in our local communities.Trust comes in partfrom remembering the shared goals you have with other people of a good life,even if we don’t always agree on the details of how to get there.

那是个好问题。我认为从丹麦学到的一课是我们应当通过个人和他人的触联来构建信任和群落。所以我们就会在我们当地的群落里,远离自己那些策略并合于众人。信任部分来源于铭记你和其他人关乎美好人生的共同目标,就算我们并不总是能就如何到达终点的细节达成一致。



3、It would seem thedifficulty is in convincing people that something is, or isn’t the cause oftheir unhappiness. Particularly if it has been politicised. Universal healthcare is a great comfort that most people don’t think about, but in the US it’sconsidered (by some) a bankrupting force that will ruin the country. In the UKthere’s an absolute conviction (again by some) that the NHS is sufferingbecause of immigrants over-using it’s services. Both have been statisticallyproven time and again not to be true, but people firmly hold on to theirbeliefs to satisfy their world view.

看起来,困难之处在于使人们相信某个东西是或不是他们不幸福的原因。尤其是在它被政治化的情况里。全民医疗保险是一个极大的支持,这一点大部分人是不会再三思虑的,但在美国它被(某些人)认为会导致破产的后果,最终会让国家毁灭。英国存在一种(仍是某些人的)深信不疑,即因为移民滥用其服务,英国国民健康保险制度(NHS)正举步维艰。这两种判断都已经在统计上被证明为无稽之谈,但人们坚定地抱持着自己的看法,以此来取悦自己的世界观。

Michael Moor’s Bowling for Columbine showedthat with gun control Americans will often assume that somehow their situationis unique, and solutions that worked elsewhere won’t work for them, even whenthey do work. I’m not sure how better to convince people a system works than tohave real-world examples, like Denmark, that show a better why of doing things.People will grasp at any fallacy they can to continue to delude themselves. Themain difference I’ve noted is that Danish people are far more willing to tryand improve things, they have the belief things can be improved. In America italmost feels defeatist, things are the best they can be, or they can’t bechanged, when neither seem to be true.

迈克尔·摩尔的纪录片《科伦拜恩的保龄》显示出:在枪支管制的问题上,美国人往往会假设,出于种种原因他们的情况是独一无二的,在别处管用的解决方案不会适用于他们,哪怕它们真的管用。我不确定说服人们某个系统管用,比现实中拥有活生生的例子要好多少,比如丹麦展示出了更好的做某些事的原因。人们会紧紧抓住任何能帮助他们继续自欺的谬论。我注意到的主要区别是:丹麦人民更愿意尝试并改善事物,他们有一种信仰,即情况是可以被改善的。在美国,能感受到的几乎是失败主义,事情已经达到了它们所能达到的最好,或者它们不可以被改变,而这两个没有一个是真的。 (译注:迈克尔·摩尔(Michael Moor),美国著名的左翼纪录片导演,有《华氏911》、《资本主义:一个爱情故事》等作品存世~)



4、This is interesting.The examples of similar constructs were all European cultures/countries. Iwonder if you are aware of similar constructs outside of Europe.

有趣的是,类似概念的例子全都存在于欧洲文化/国家。我好奇你是否知道在欧洲以外存在着类似的概念。



5、There is much to beadmired about Danish culture, there you can take a bicycle ride in the countryand stop by a roadside stand where various fruits and snacks are sold. Noattendant is present, it is all on the honor system. You sext what you want,the prices are posted, you put your payment into a little cash box, typicallysomething on the order of a cigar box, depositing exact change if you have itor making change from the cash box. And this works flawlessly for the mostpart.

丹麦文化中有许多值得钦佩的,在那里你可以在乡间骑行,并在路边摊前停下来,那里有各式各样的水果和零食出售。没有售货员在场,一切都基于信誉系统。你选出你要的,价格是标明的,你把你支付的钱放进一个小现金盒,通常是雪茄盒,投入数值正好的零钱,如果你有的话,或者自己从现金盒中找零。而且这一套在大多数情况下运行地很完美。



6、I dunno, I’m prettydarn happy. I have everything described as ‘hygge’ within my family. Not myfault that others can’t build a strong family and have poor relationships.

也许吧,我可是幸福得要命。在我的家庭里,我拥有所有的被描摹为“hygge”的东西。其他人无法建构一个牢固的家庭或是关系糟糕不是我的错。

And the Danes can keep their God-awful taxrate. I know how to manage my money far better than the government. No numberof studies citing ‘low corruption rates’ will change my mind.

而且丹麦人可以继续保持他们恐怖的税率。我知道如何管理我的钱,比交给政府管要好多了。任何引用“低腐败率”数字的研究都不会改变我的看法。

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