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【中英双语】中国喜欢便宜而方便的电动自行车--美国呢?

更新:2016-11-07 00:28:57  |  来源:转载  |  阅读:10
标签:美国双语中国

Electronic bicycles—ubiquitous in Chinese cities—are widely banned in many American towns. Advocates are hoping for this to change.

电动自行车——中国的城市里无处不在——在许多美国城市中被广泛禁止,其拥护者正希望改变这种情况。

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A man transports ducks on his electric bike through a flooded street in Nanjing, Jiangsu province. (Sean Yong/Reuters)

一名男子在他的电动自行车上运着鸭子穿过江苏省南京市的积水的街道。

Lawmakers, manufacturers and transportation experts have focused much of their attention on electric cars, with still-disappointing results, but consumers in many parts of the world are embracing electric bikes, which in addition to the usual pedals have small battery-powered motors to speed things along.

国会议员,制造商和交通运输专家已经把他们的大部分注意力集中在电动汽车上,其结果却仍然令人失望,但是世界其它地方的许多消费者正在接受电动自行车,它除了通常的一对脚踏板之外还有小型的电动马达令其向前加速。

The number of electric-powered bicycles in China just passed the 200 million mark, manufactures are reporting 200 percent annual sales growth in Brazil, sales are strong in Europe and the Philippines is ordering 100,000 electricity-powered three wheelers, just one of several Asian nations investing in e-bikes.

中国的电动自行车的数量前不久突破了2亿大关,制造商的报告称在巴西有200%的年销售增幅,欧洲销售强劲,菲律宾正在订购10万辆电动三轮车,这还只是投资于电动自行车的数个亚洲国家之一而已。

E-bikes normally travel at speeds of 20 to 30 miles per hour, they charge from a regular electric socket and starting at about $1,000 per bike they're rather affordable, at least compared to electric cars. You can even build one yourself for much less. They also can eliminate a notorious bike commuter fear—the sweaty arrival to the office in a suit that's going to smell funky all day—and allow older and less physically fit riders more mobility than a traditional bicycle.

电动自行车通常以20-30英里每小时的速度行驶,它们在常规的电源插座上充电,起价大约1000美元每台,至少与电动汽车相比具有相当的可负担性,你甚至可以耗资更少自己打造一辆。它们也能消除一个自行车上班族广受诟病的担忧--身着套装满身是汗的来到办公室,一整天都汗臭味之中--并让年长者和体质不佳的骑车者比使用传统自行车更有机动性。

Strangely, most U.S. politicians are doing little to encourage their use, and some are actively discouraging it. Although President George W. Bush signed a 2002 federal law that exempts electric bikes with speeds under 20 mph and less than 750 watts of power from state motor vehicle licensing requirements, individual states have introduced at least 47 different was of clamping down on their use. The confusion has spawned websites to address questions like "Is my e-bike legal?, and helped to keep sales low. Of the 29.3 million e-bikes sold in 2012, just 53,000 were sold in the U.S., according to Navigant Research.

奇怪的是,大部分美国人在鼓励其使用方面做的极少,还有一些人还在积极的阻止它,尽管小布什总统签署了一份2002年联邦法案,免除了时速20英里功率750瓦以下的电动自行车的机动车驾照要求,除个别州有引入外,至少47个州对它们的使用是进行取缔的。这种混乱已在网站上引发了一些讨论话题,如"我的电动自行车是合法的吗?",并且使其销量持续走低,按Navigant Research的数据,2012年电动自行车的销量是2900万,在美国仅有53,000辆售出。 

With traditional bicycle use growing in many U.S. cities, there is also a brewing culture clash between traditional bike purists and e-bikes over whether the motorized versions should be used in bike lanes or relegated to the regular roads, and whether using an e-bike is "cheating."

随着传统自行车使用量在许多美国城市不断增长,一个传统自行车纯粹主义者和电动自行车之间的文化冲突正在发酵,焦点是摩托化版本(的自行车)是应当走自行车专用道,或是该走常规车道,还有使用电动自行车是不是在"出老千"。

Some U.S. cities, citing safety concerns, have banned them altogether: New York outlawed e-bikes in 2012 as part of a war against reckless delivery people, a move critics said was akin to making cars illegal because of drunk drivers. In April, Manhattan's City Council voted to fine businesses as much as $250 just for having an e-bike on the premises.

一些美国城市以安全考虑已经彻底禁止了它们:作为防范横冲直撞的快递员的一项措施,纽约在2012年宣布电动自行车为非法,有评论员说此举形同因为醉驾而宣布汽车为非法,在今年4月,曼哈顿市政委员会投票决定对经营场所有一辆电动自行车的商家处以差不多250美元的罚金。

In Europe, on the other hand, even as car sales stalled in the years since the 2008 global recession, sales of e-bikes have skyrocketed in recent years, up 47 percent since 2010, Bike Europe reported. "Even in times of crisis, as well as rainy summers and harsh winters, e-bike sales are on the rise," the bicycle enthusiast website noted. Here's their compilation of all the European countries that broke out e-bike sales by unit:

另一方面,在欧洲,当小汽车销量自2008的的全球衰退以来正连年下滑之时,电动自行车的销量在最近几年却出现了爆发性的增长,按Bike Europe的报告,销量自2010年以来已增长了47%,"即使在危机时期,不管在多雨的夏季还是在严寒的冬季,电动自行车的销量一直在上升",自行车爱好者网站这样说。这是他们收集的电动车销量爆发的所有欧洲国家的统计数据(单位为辆):

Source: ZIV, RAI Vereniging, Velosuisse, CNPC, ANCMA, Arge Zweirad

数据来源:ZIV, RAI Vereniging, Velosuisse, CNPC, ANCMA, Arge Zweirad

China dominates e-bike sales and manufacturing—an estimated 90 percent of the world's e-bikes are sold in China and the majority of them are made there.

中国主导着电动自行车的销售和生产--估计全球电动自行车销量的90%在中国,而且大部分在那里生产。

Western carmakers are slowly starting to show some interest. Last year, German carmaker Audi rolled out a sleek prototype e-bike capable of going 50 miles an hour, with a carbon frame and a small, light, easy to change battery pack so riders could carry extras with them.

西方的汽车制造商正逐步开始表现出一些兴趣,去年,德国汽车制造商奥迪推出了一款时速达到50英里的造型圆滑的电动自行车原型,它具有碳纤维车架和一个小而轻的,易于更换的电池组,这样骑车者就可以再额外携带一个了。

E-bike enthusiasts like to say that the bikes exact an even smaller environmental toll than traditional, non-motorized bicycles, because the electricity they rely on is actually a much more efficient converter of fuel to power than the human body, which needs more fuel in the form of food when you're riding a normal bike.

电动自行车拥护者喜欢说这种车耗费的环境代价比传统的无马达的自行车更小,因为它们所依赖的电力实际上是一个比人类身体的效率高得多的化燃料为功率的转换器,人类身体在骑普通自行车时需要更多食物形式的燃料。

The bikes take the "hills out of riding," one septuagenarian rider in Manhattan told The New York Times in 2010, dubbing them "marvelous." If he's still riding the bike around the city, he's probably being ticketed right about now.

自行车是"骑术之外的高地"(译注:此句可能不准确,引号内应该是一句歌词),一位曼哈顿年逾七旬的老骑手2010年在作不同寻常的双人骑乘时对纽约时报说,如果他现在还在城中骑行,他可能会收到交通罚单了。



国外网民评论翻译:

Yahweh • 3 days ago
"manufactures are reporting"
•Reply•Share › 

"制造商正在报告"



Brandon W. • 3 days ago
I live in a college town. I've seen a couple of these around, but I see quite a few mopeds. Most areas of town have 30-35 mph speed limits, and a 50cc moped will go close to 30. In my state, they must be registered but are exempt from licensing and auto-insurance laws. I suspect most Americans don't care about the pedals. Sell electric mopeds that hit that 30 mph mark.
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我住在大学城,我在这一块看到过几辆,不过我见到的轻便摩托车相当少,城中的大部分区域限速30-35英里每小时,一台50cc的轻便摩托车的时速接近30英里,在我们州,它们必须上牌,不过不用持驾照和买保险,我想大多数美国人都不关注踏板,销售电动助力车会碰到30英里限速的问题。



ZA_SF • 3 days ago
In a country accustomed to "burning a gallon of gas to buy a gallon of milk," an e-bike that can replace that car trip to the grocery store is a winning proposition. Rather than fixating on the commuting worker or moped student, think about the utility of safely moving driver, cargo, and perhaps a child.
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在一个人们习惯于"烧一加仑汽油去买一加仑牛奶"的国家,一辆能代替汽车外出至杂货店购物的电动自行车是一个很有前途的好点子,好过只关注通勤族和骑轻便摩托的学生党,就是要考虑一下它的安全驾驶,货物的问题,可能还有儿童。



Sam W • 2 days ago
$1,000? Not in China at least - you can get used or lower-end models (which is what many locals in Beijing use) for 1/6 that price, and a standard mid-line domestic Chinese brand (what I take to and from work every day) will run $500 USD at the most. I'm sure they'd cost at least $1k if they were produced to western standards though. Safety concerns are no joke, e-bike drivers are a menace on the road here even though everyone is accustomed to them.
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1000美元?起码这不是在中国--你或者可以使用低端的型号(就如许多北京人使用的那种),只要1/6的价钱,一个标准的中国国内中游品牌(我每天上下班所用的)最多只需要500美元,不过我相信如果它们以西方标准生产,成本至少需要1000美元。安全担忧不是开玩笑,即使人人都习惯了它们,电动车在马路上仍然是个威胁。



sv • 2 days ago
so these are like, electric mopeds? not electric scooters or electric motorcycles. i thought electric bicycles are just basic bicycles with a small added engine that can augment or take over from your pedaling. those are usually treated like regular bicycles legally in the US, i think.
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那么这些像电动轻便摩托车么?不是电动自行车或电动摩托车。我认为电动自行车就应该是基本的自行车附加一个能做功或代替脚踏板的小型引擎,那样在美国就可以视作普通合法的自行车了。



Solo500 • a day ago
The problem as a city cyclist is that e-bikes are a real hazard to regular bikes. On the Manhattan Bridge bike lane for example they are a constant danger. OTOH, they really don't belong in the regular car lanes either. We are just getting to the starting line for multi-modal transport in the US so anything that hampers human-powered vehicles is problematic.
Better than cars & motorcycles though!
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作为一个城市骑车人面对的问题是,电动自行车对普通自行车是一个真正的威胁,比如,在曼哈顿大桥的自行车道上它们就是一个实实在在的危险,另一方面,它们也确实不属于在普通机动车道上行驶的车辆,美国正逐步处在综合运输方式的起跑线上,所以任何妨碍人力驱动的交通工具的事物都是个问题。
虽然比小汽车和摩托车更好!



RandolphOfRoanoke Solo500 • 13 hours ago
Why shouldn't they be in the regular car lanes? A decent powered bike with a decent driver doesn't perform that much differently from a more heavily motorized bike or a car in city traffic, so in terms of traffic flow they go together reasonably well.
Bicyclists, electric or not, are at particular risk from bad car driving given their lack of protection, but that's also true of traditional motorcyclists. At the same time, a substantial fraction of bicyclists also have a kamikaze attitude to traffic rules, so they don't appear all that scared by that lack of protection.
I'm not sure how to bring that cultural change about, but the best way to integrate bikes moving at the speed of cars into the traffic flow would be for car drivers to respect bikes as if they were cars and for bicyclists participating in traffic (as opposed to recreational paths) to behave as if they were cars, maybe with some special rules like allowing Michigan stops provided that the bicyclist makes sure there is no cross traffic.
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为什么它们不应当上普通机动车道?一个由正规驾驶者驾驶的正规动力的自行车与一辆重型摩托车或一辆小汽车在城市交通上所做的事情没有什么不同,所以从交通流上而言它们一起走也是合理的。
骑车的人,不管是电动的与否,都面临忽视安全的不良的汽车驾驶行为带给他们的特有的危险,不过这对摩托车手也一样,与此同时,很大一部分骑车人也以神风敢死队员一样的态度对待交通规则,因此他们在缺少安全保护的情况下一丁点也不显得害怕。
我不确定怎么样把这种文化习惯改变过来,不过,把以小汽车的速度行驶的自行车整合进交通流的最好方法是小汽车驾驶员得尊重自行车,就好象把自行车当作是小汽车一样的交通参与者(当然,当反对把道路当休闲小径)。可能还有一些专门的法规,就象密歇根那样允许禁止供应自行车以确保没有交叉车流。



RandolphOfRoanoke • 13 hours ago −
I'm not a fan of regulation, but the roads are one part where some rules are plainly necessary because they're a shared resource. At the same time, we shouldn't discourage innovation, especially when it's clearly beneficial in terms of fuel use, space use, road wear, and such.
A reasonable solution for electric bikes might be something like Germany's licensing for mopeds--there's no state registration required, but they need to carry something that looks like a license plate, but is issued by insurance companies. Liability insurance for these things tends to be very cheap, given that bad driving usually causes only property damage or smaller injuries to third parties (although in Germany it's also much cheaper than in America because pain and suffering awards there are kept to a purely symbolic level).

我不是一个规章制度的粉丝,不过道路是确实需要规章制度的地方之一,因为它们是公共资源,同时,我们不应该阻止创新,尤其当它对燃料利用,空间利用,道路磨损等方面明显有利时。
对电动自行车的合理的解决方案可能是象德国那样对轻便摩托车发放许可----没有政府注册要求,但是它们需要携带一个看起来象牌照的东西,它是由保险公司发放的,鉴于不良驾驶行为通常对第三方造成的仅仅是财物损坏和很小的伤害,为这种玩意儿上的责任险倾向于非常便宜(而且在德国它也比在美国便宜很多,因为伤痛损害判决纯粹只具有象征意义而已)。

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